Although Puako is one of the most
pristine reefs in the state, damage from human impacts is still a
concern. The principal
threat is that of anchor damage resulting from the high number of
boats that visit the area. Recent installation of pin moorings
should help alleviate this problem. Other concerns include coral
breakage from the numerous sport divers that visit the area.
Bubbles from divers visiting the caves may also damage and/or
kill encrusting corals and sponges on the walls. Sewage leaking
from cesspools from residential homes is also a concern. There
are plans to develop the land mauka (upslope) of Puako
with an additional 200 homes.